European culture has long belittled the many experiences of rule by queen or female regent. Indeed, it considered them marginal. By the 1920s, however, modern historical research began to shed light on the topic. This led to a reimagining of the transfer of royal succession to women, raising suspicion that the principle which underpinned that subjugation was gender-based according to a “natural” division of roles. Yet the notion of female rule that has long been popular among specialist historians, and which has not been fully dispelled until today, confirms that governments led by women were either unlucky or boasted only short-lived success.